Youtube - Google

Google owns YouTube, an online video website. Every day, YouTube users view over one billion hours of video[7], and hundreds of hours of video material are posted to YouTube servers every minute. [8]

Youtube Info:

  • Type of business: Subsidiary
  • Type of site: Online video platform
  • Founded: February 14, 2005; 16 years ago
  • Headquarters: 901 Cherry Avenue San Bruno, California, United States
  • Area served: Worldwide (excluding blocked countries)
  • Owner: Alphabet Inc.
  • Founder(s): Chad Hurley Steve Chen Jawed Karim
  • Key people: Susan Wojcicki (CEO) Chad Hurley (advisor)
  • Industry: Internet Video hosting service
  • Products: YouTube Premium YouTube Music YouTube TV YouTube Kids
  • Revenue: Increase US$19.8 billion (2020)[1]
  • Parent: Google LLC (2006–present)
  • URL: (see list of localized domain names)
  • Advertising: Google AdSense
  • Registration: Optional
  • Users: Increase 2 billion (October 2020)[2]
  • Launched: February 14, 2005; 16 years ago
  • Current status: Active
  • Content license: Uploader holds copyright (standard license); Creative Commons can be selected.
  • Written in: Python (core/API),[3] C (through CPython), C++, Java (through Guice platform),[4][5] Go,[6] JavaScript (UI)

YouTube offers a variety of options to stream content, including the internet, smartphone applications, and the ability to insert them on other websites. Music videos, video clips, short and documentary films, voice interviews, movie trailers, live streams, and video bloggers are all available. Individuals create the majority of content, but television companies still post videos. Registered users will comment on videos, rate them, build playlists, and subscribe to other users in addition to viewing and uploading.

YouTube was founded in 2005 and was purchased by Google for US$1.65 billion the following year. It has developed into one of the company's most profitable divisions, with revenue expected to reach $19.8 billion in 2020. 1st Google's AdSense platform provides promotional fees to YouTube and chosen producers. The vast majority of videos are available for free viewing, but others require a music or premium subscription.

Because of its widespread success and availability of video content, YouTube has had a huge social influence around the world. There have also been various debates about YouTube's business, moral, and political facets.


Founding and initial growth (2005–2006)

Youtube - Google

Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim created YouTube. The trio were both early employees of PayPal, and when the firm was purchased by eBay, they walked away with a lot of money. [9] Hurley had majored in architecture at the Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim had majored in computer science at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. [10]

The company's origins have been told in a variety of ways. According to a widely circulated account, Hurley and Chen came up with the concept for YouTube in the early months of 2005, after having trouble sharing videos taken at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim was not present and denied that the party took place, but Chen said that the notion that YouTube was created after a dinner party "was possibly quite reinforced by marketing concepts about making a very digestible narrative."[11]

Karim claims that Janet Jackson's involvement in the 2004 Super Bowl attack, in which her breast was revealed during her show, and the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami inspired YouTube. Karim was unable to locate video clips of any incident on the internet, prompting the development of a video-sharing website. [12] Hurley and Chen said the initial concept for YouTube was a visual version of an online dating program, and that the website Hot or Not had inspired them. [11] [13]

They advertised on Craigslist that they were looking for beautiful women to upload videos of themselves to YouTube in return for a $100 payout. [14] Since it was difficult to find enough dating videos, the site's creators decided to welcome video submissions of any kind. [15]

YouTube started as a technology start-up backed by venture capital. The firm received money from a number of investors between November 2005 and April 2006, with Sequoia Capital ($11.5 million) and Artis Capital Management ($8 million) becoming the two biggest. [9] [16]  In San Mateo, California, YouTube's early headquarters were located above a pizzeria and a Japanese restaurant. [17]

The corporation launched in February 2005. [18] On April 23, 2005, the first video was uploaded. It's still up on the web, titled Me at the Zoo, and it shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo. [19] [20] a The brand opened a public trial in May, and by November, a Nike commercial starring Ronaldinho had surpassed one million overall views. [21] [22]  The web was publicly released on December 15, 2005, and by that time it had received 8 million daily visits. [23] [24] Clips were limited to 100 megabytes at the time, with as few as 30 seconds of footage allowed. [25]

Vimeo, which was released in November 2004, was not the first video-sharing platform on the Internet, but it remained a side project of its creators from CollegeHumor at the time and did not expand much either. [26] The Lonely Island's skit "Lazy Sunday" was featured on NBC-Saturday Universal's Night Live within the week of YouTube's debut. In addition to boosting Saturday Night Live's ratings and long-term viewership, "Lazy Sunday's" reputation as an early viral video helped create YouTube as a significant website. [27]

By February 2006, unofficial YouTube uploads of the skit had accumulated more than five million views before being deleted at NBCUniversal's request two months later due to copyright issues.   [28] Despite being removed later, the duplicate uploads of the skit helped expand YouTube's scope and contributed to the upload of additional third-party material. [29] [ 30] The site expanded quickly, with the organization announcing in July 2006 that more than 65,000 new videos were being posted per day and that the site was attracting 100 million video views every day. [31]

However, the majority of these views come from a limited number of videos; at the time, a web developer estimated that 30% of videos accounted for 99 percent of site views. [44] The organization updated its GUI again that year, as well as introducing a new logo with a darker shade of red. [45] [46] In 2013, a new user interface was introduced to unify the experience across the internet, television, and handheld devices. [47] At that time, more than 100 hours a minute were being uploaded, a figure that would rise to 300 hours by November 2014. [48] [49] 

The use of the domain name caused confusion with a website of the same name, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, the owner of the domain, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006, claiming that it was constantly flooded by users searching for YouTube. Universal Tube's website was later renamed [32][33]

Acquisition by Google (2006–2013)

Youtube - Google utube

Google announced the acquisition of YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google shares on October 9, 2006. [34][35] On November 13, 2006, the agreement was signed. [36] [37] Google's purchase sparked renewed interest in video-sharing platforms, and IAC, which now owns Vimeo, concentrated on assisting the content producer in order to differentiate itself from YouTube. [26]

The business grew at a breakneck rate. According to the Daily Telegraph, YouTube used as much bandwidth in 2007 as the whole Internet did in 2000. [38] According to ComScore, the firm had a market share of about 43 percent by 2010 and had over 14 billion video views.  [39]

In the same year, the company updated its interface with the aim of making it more user-friendly and increasing the number of time people spent on the web.[40] 

More than three billion videos were viewed every day in 2011, with 48 hours of new videos posted every minute. [41] [42] [43]

The corporation underwent several internal changes during this period. YouTube relocated to a new office in San Bruno, California, in October 2006. [50] Hurley revealed that he will be stepping down as CEO of YouTube to take on an advisory role, with Salar Kamangar taking over as CEO of the company in October 2010. [51]

New revenue streams (2013–present)

During this time, YouTube experimented with a number of different advertising streams other than commercials. YouTube started a pilot program in 2013 to enable content creators to sell premium, subscription-based channels on the web. [52] [53]

This project was put on hold in January 2018 and then relaunched in June with US$4.99 channel subscriptions. [54]  [55] these channel subscriptions were added to the current Super Chat feature, which requires viewers to contribute $1 to $500 to get their message illuminated. [56] YouTube launched a subscription program called "Music Key" in 2014, which combined ad-free music streaming on YouTube with the current Google Play Music service. [57]

By 2015, YouTube had unveiled YouTube Red, a new subscription offering that will provide ad-free access to all of the platform's content, premium original shows and films made by YouTube stars, as well as background streaming of content on mobile devices (succeeding the Music Key service launched the previous year). YouTube Music, a third app aimed at downloading and exploring music content hosted on the YouTube website, was also launched. [58][59][60]

In 2018, YouTube announced the rebranding of YouTube Red as YouTube Premium, as well as the forthcoming introduction of a separate YouTube Music subscription (along with a massive extension of the service into Canada and 13 European markets). [61]

In February 2014, Susan Wojcicki was appointed CEO of YouTube.

[62] YouTube purchased a $215 million office park in San Bruno in January 2016 to extend its headquarters. The facility has a total area of 51,468 square meters (554,000 square feet) and can accommodate up to 2,800 staff. [63] [63]

On April 3, 2018, a shooting occurred at YouTube's offices in San Bruno, California, injuring three people and killing two others (including the shooter). [64] 

In 2015, YouTube Kids, a secondary mobile app, was launched. The software is built to have a child-friendly experience. It has a simple user interface, selected channel selections of age-appropriate content, and parental control options. [65]

In 2021, a supervised mode, geared toward tweens, was added to the mix. [66]   YouTube Games, an online gaming-focused vertical and software for videos and live streaming, was introduced in 2015 to compete with Twitch.  [67]

In 2018, YouTube started to phase out the standalone YouTube Gaming platform and app, replacing it with a digital Gaming hub integrated into the main service. Staff at YouTube claimed that the separate channel was confusing users and that integrating the two platforms would enable the service's services (such as game-based portals and improved discoverability of gaming-related content and live streaming) to reach a wider audience through the main YouTube website. [68]

Every day, one billion hours of video were viewed on YouTube, and 400 hours of video were posted every minute by February 2017.[7][69][70][71][72] 

After two years, the upload rate had risen to more than 500 hours a minute. [8]

On August 29, 2017, YouTube unveiled the "polymer" overhaul of its user interfaces, which uses Material Design as the default design language, as well as a new logo centered on the service's play button icon. [73]

Subscriber counts have been abbreviated since September 2019. Only the first three digits of a channel's viewer count are made public, putting the role of third-party real-time metrics like Social Blade in jeopardy. Within YouTube Studio, channel operators can still see exact counts. [ 74] 

YouTube was confirmed to be testing hiding dislikes on videos for users in March 2021. According to YouTube, developers will be able to see the number of likes and dislikes in the YouTube Studio dashboard tool. [75] [76]

YouTube revealed in November 2019 that the classic version of its Creator Studio will be phased out for all consumers by the spring of 2020. [77]   The classic studio will be decommissioned in August 2020. [78]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, when the majority of the population was ordered to sit at home, YouTube consumption skyrocketed. In response to EU officials' requests that certain providers limit bandwidth to ensure that medical institutions have enough bandwidth to exchange information, YouTube and Netflix announced that they would reduce viewing quality for at least thirty days in order to comply with the EU's recommendation to reduce bandwidth usage of their services by 25%. [79]

"We continue to work together with policymakers and network providers around the world and do our best to alleviate demand on the grid during this extraordinary crisis," YouTube said later. [80]

COPPA settlement

An alliance of 23 organizations (including the CCFC, CDD, and Common Sense Media) lodged a lawsuit with the Federal Trade Commission in April 2018, charging that YouTube received information from children under the age of 13 without parental permission, in breach of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA).[ 81]

The FTC fined YouTube $170 million in September 2019 for gathering personal information from minors under the age of 13 without parental permission (in particular, browsing history) in order to encourage channel operators to serve targeted ads on their content. The FTC specifically found YouTube partially responsible under COPPA because the service's classification and curation of content as safe for children represented the website's targeting of children. [82]

YouTube was ordered to "create, enforce, and retain a framework for Channel Owners to designate if their Content on the YouTube Service is directed to Children" in order to comply with the settlement. YouTube has revealed a three-year investment of $100 million to fund the development of "thoughtful, original children's material." [83][84][85]

YouTube started implementing its legal strategy in November 2019, in accordance with the terms of its FTC deal. Both channels must state whether their content is "made for kids" on a per-video basis or as a blanket declaration for their entire site. According to the organization, a video is "made for kids" if its primary audience is children, or if it is "guided" to children depending on a number of criteria (even if they are not the primary audience), including the use of child actors, "characters, celebrities, or toys that appeal to children," and representations of "activities that appeal to children, such as play-acting, simple songs or games." or early education," as well as poetry, music, and stories for girls, to name a few. YouTube will use machine learning to identify videos that are specifically "made for kids" and mark them as such, but it would not assist or counsel content owners for videos that slip into gray areas, as this would be considered legal advice. [85] [86][87]

Beginning January 6, 2020, videos labeled as "made for kids" had their accessibility automatically limited in order to avoid data from minors being gathered without their permission. As a consequence, social and group functionality like end screens and other plugins, warning controls, and comments have been removed, and videos can only be monetized with contextual ads depending on the metadata. [86] [83][87][88]

Furthermore, channel operators will be liable for failure to properly mark channels or videos as "made for kids," with the FTC allowed to levy penalties of up to $42,000 per infringing video, though the FTC explained that the sum will be determined by "a company's financial situation and the effect a sanction might have on its ability to remain in operation." [89] Any channel owners have criticized the new rules, claiming that YouTube and the FTC's guidance remains ambiguous in certain edge cases, such as video games (where content may typically be directed towards teens and young adults, but may still contain characters that appeal to children). They also mentioned that a lack of targeted advertising may decrease a video's sales and that the lack of social features can affect their videos' potential to be promoted, according to YouTube. [86][87]

Videos labeled "made for kids" are now removed from Google search results, reducing sales for video owners even further. [89]  Content developers who were unsure whether their videos were "made for kids" complained that they would have to either preemptively mark them as such or make them private, or risk being fined by the Federal Trade Commission. [86] [87]

The legal language of COPPA allowed the material to be labeled for "mixed audience," allowing data collection from audiences who described themselves as 13 or older. YouTube has been chastised for failing to offer a "mixed crowd" option as a third option, which would have alleviated content creator fears. [90][91]

"There are some complexities with the mixed audience group," according to YouTube's details page about the COPPA criteria, which they have sent to the FTC during public consultation times, and in the meantime "decided to streamline the choices for developers by providing a single 'Made for kids' category to prevent further complexity in a still unclear room." [92]

In dissenting remarks, FTC Commissioner Rebecca Kelly Slaughter observed that many of the child-directed channels on YouTube were operated by owners outside of the United States, which could be outside of COPPA's control and the FTC's "practical scope." [93] 

On November 22, 2019, the FTC published a blog post to explain what it meant by "designed for kids," stating that many considerations must be weighed in making this decision and that it recognized that certain forms of content, such as animated programming, would cater to people of all ages and would not be subject to COPPA's criteria right away. The FTC also referred producers to its initial lawsuit against YouTube, which identified platforms and video material they believed to be in violation of COPPA, which was the foundation of their prosecution. [94]

YouTube lodged comments with the FTC on December 10, 2019, citing the above critique and demanding clarification on its regulations, citing the aforementioned edge cases.[95] 

On January 6, 2020, YouTube began treating all videos labeled "made for kids" as COPPA-compliant. [96]


Video technology

The file formats VP9 and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, as well as the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP protocol, are used extensively on YouTube. [97] By January of this year, YouTube had started to distribute videos in the AV1 format. [98] YouTube revealed its plan to start developing ISNI markers to uniquely mark the artists whose videos it covers in 2018. [99]


Previously, streaming YouTube videos on a personal computer necessitated the installation of the Adobe Flash Player plug-in in the browser. [100]  YouTube released an early version of the platform in January 2010 that took advantage of the built-in multimedia features of web browsers that supported the HTML5 format. [101]   This required videos to be viewed without needing the installation of Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in. [102] [103]

The YouTube website had a page where users could sign up for the HTML5 trial using compatible browsers. The videos could only be viewed in browsers that supported HTML5 Video using the MP4 (H.264 video) or WebM (VP8 video) formats, and not all of the videos on the platform were available. [104]  [105]

YouTube revealed on January 27, 2015, that HTML5 will be the default playback option on compatible browsers. YouTube used to use Adobe Dynamic Streaming for Flash[106] but instead uses Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming approach that optimizes the bitrate and output for the usable network. [107] 

The platform will serve videos at lower resolutions, starting at 144p, for smoother streaming in areas and countries with slow Internet speeds, improved compatibility, and the maintenance of restricted cellular data plans. The resolution level can be changed automatically or manually depending on the perceived connection speed. [108][109]


YouTube users will post videos that are up to 15 minutes long. Users can check their accounts with a cell phone to gain access to upload videos up to 12 hours in length as well as create live streams. [110] [111] Longer videos could be uploaded since YouTube first opened in 2005, but a ten-minute cap was imposed in March 2006 when YouTube discovered that the bulk of videos longer than this were illegal uploads of television shows and films. [112] In July 2010, the 10-minute limit was extended to 15 minutes. [113] In the past, videos older than 12 hours may be uploaded. The maximum size of a video is 128 GB. [110] When video captions are submitted, voice recognition technology is used to create them. Since automatic captioning is always flawless, YouTube offers many alternatives for manually entering captions for greater accuracy.  [114] On September 28, 2020, YouTube deprecated its 'Community Captions' functionality, which allowed viewers to compose and send captions for public display after the video uploader approved them. (Captions that were previously introduced with the feature will be kept.) [ 115]

For the film, YouTube supports MPEG-1, MPEG-2, H.264 AVC, H.265 HEVC, VC-1, VP8, VP9, and AV1; for audio, MP3, Linear PCM, AAC, FLAC, Vorbis, Opus, and Dolby Digital (also known as AC-3) are all supported. Almost any container format, like but not limited to MP4, Matroska, FLV, AVI, WebM, 3GP, MPEG-PS, and others, can be used, as well as QuickTime File Format Few intermediate video formats, such as ProRes, are also accepted (i.e., mainly used for advanced video editing, not for final transmission or storage). [116] To optimize the accuracy of the transcoded content that will be displayed to audiences, YouTube does specify a "recommended" upload format; as of late 2020, this is H.264 AVC video and AAC audio in an MP4 folder. [117]

Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning may be posted, although YouTube recommends that interlaced videos be deinterlaced before uploading for the best video quality. Progressive scanning is used in many of YouTube's video formats. [118] According to YouTube's figures, interlaced videos are already being posted, and there is no evidence that this trend is slowing down. This, according to YouTube, is due to the posting of made-for-TV videos. [119]

Quality and formats

YouTube used to only have one output standard, with videos viewed at a resolution of 320240 pixels and mono MP3 audio using the Sorenson Spark codec (a version of H.263). [122] YouTube introduced the ability to stream videos in 3GP format on cell phones in June 2007.  [123] A high-quality model was introduced in March 2008, raising the resolution to 480360 pixels. [ 124] 720p HD support was introduced in December 2008. The YouTube player was changed from a 4:3 aspect ratio to a widescreen 16:9 aspect ratio at the time of the 720p launch. [Page 125] YouTube started using H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as the default video encoding format with this new feature. Support for 1080p HD was introduced in November 2009. YouTube revealed in July 2010 that it had introduced a 4K video format, which allows for a resolution of up to 40963072 pixels. [ 126] [127] Inventive+ phrasing Support for 4K resolution was introduced in March 2015, with videos playing at 3840 x 2160 pixels. Support for 8K resolution was introduced in June 2015, with videos playing at 76804320 pixels. [128] Support for HDR video, which can be encoded with Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer, was introduced in November 2016. (PQ). [129] Rec. 2020 color space can be used to encode HDR video. [130]

YouTube began supporting high frame rate videos up to 60 frames per second (rather than the previous 30) in June 2014, and user uploads began in October. This, according to YouTube, would boost "motion-intensive" content, such as video game clips. [131][132][133][134]

Videos on YouTube come with a variety of content ranges. Standard Quality (SQ), high quality (HQ), and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values that represent the video's vertical resolution. If the browser/device does not support VP9/WebM or the browser's user agent reports Windows XP, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video with stereo AAC audio is used instead. [135]

2020 picture quality cut

On March 18, 2020, Thierry Breton, a European commissioner in charge of the European Union's digital strategy, urged streaming sites such as YouTube to restrict their offerings. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe, the appeal came as a way of preventing Europe's telecommunications networks from collapsing as tens of millions of people began telecommuting. According to the EU, subscription services should only provide standard definition programming rather than high-definition ones, and subscribers should be responsible for their data use. [136] On March 20, YouTube retaliated by briefly downgrading standard definition videos across the EU, including traffic in the United Kingdom. [137] [138]


Users may apply "annotations" to their videos from 2008 to 2017, such as pop-up text messages and hyperlinks. These functions were particularly prominent in collaborative videos, which used hyperlinks to other videos to accomplish branching features. Since their use had dropped quickly, consumers had considered them to be an inconvenience, and they were incompatible with smartphone versions of the service, the annotations editor was discontinued and the tool will be sunset in March 2017. On January 15, 2019, all annotations were deleted from all videos.YouTube had added streamlined widgets such as "end screens" (a personalized series of thumbnails for defined videos shown at the end of the video) and "cards" to substitute annotations in a cross-platform fashion, but they are not backward compatible with current annotations, and the elimination of annotations would split all-immersive interactions that rely on them. [139][140][141][142]

Live to stream

YouTube experimented with live streaming in the early days, broadcasting a U2 concert in 2009 and a question-and-answer session with US President Barack Obama in February 2010. [143]   These experiments had previously focused on technologies from third-party partners, but YouTube started testing its own live streaming infrastructure in September 2010. [144] YouTube Live was revealed in April 2011 with the launch of a portal website at, only a few partners were allowed to create live streams. [145] It was used to broadcast live events such as the London Olympics in 2012. [146] More than 8 million viewers viewed Felix Baumgartner's leap from the edge of space lives on YouTube in October 2012. [147]

In May 2013, confirmed users with at least 1,000 subscribers were allowed to create live streams; in August of that year, the number was limited to 100 subscribers,[148], and in December, the cap was deleted. [149]  Live streaming was added to the official YouTube smartphone app in February 2017. Live streaming through smartphones was formerly limited to users with at least 10,000 subscribers[150], but this was lowered to 100 subscribers by mid-2017. [151]  Live streams can be up to 4K resolution at 60 frames per second, with 360° camera support. [152]

3D videos

YouTube software developer Peter Bradshaw revealed that users could now upload 3D videos in a video posted on July 21, 2009[153]. The videos can be viewed in a variety of ways, including the often used anaglyph (cyan/red lens) process, which requires the audience to wear glasses to achieve the 3D effect. [154][155][156] 

The YouTube Flash player will display stereoscopic content in rows, columns, or a checkerboard pattern, as well as side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta, or blue/yellow mix. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube player became compliant with Nvidia 3D Vision and started promoting side-by-side 3D video. [157] Since then, the feature range has been pared down, and the 3D feature now only supports red/cyan anaglyph, with no side-by-side support.

360-degree videos

Google revealed in January 2015 that 360-degree content will be enabled natively on YouTube. YouTube enabled 360° videos on March 13, 2015, which can be watched using Google Cardboard, a virtual reality device. All other augmented reality headsets will now display YouTube 360. [158]  Live 360° video streaming at up to 4K resolution is also possible. [152]

In 2017, YouTube started promoting VR180, an alternative stereoscopic camera format with a 180-degree field of view that is said to be easier to create than 360-degree video and allows for more depth to be maintained while avoiding equirectangular projection. [159]

User features


YouTube released a public beta of Community on September 13, 2016, a social media-based feature that allows users to share text, photos (including GIFs), live videos, and other content in a separate "Community" tab on there.[160]

 Vlogbrothers, AsapScience, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger, and Vsauce3 were among the YouTubers contacted prior to the release to suggest resources Community might add that they would find useful. [161]

The group post feature is automatically triggered for any channel that crosses a certain level of user counts or already has more subscribers after the feature is officially launched. This threshold was gradually reduced over time[when?] from 10,000 to 1500, and then to 1000, which is the new threshold as of September 2019. [162]

Instead of coexisting or migrating, channels that have the group tab activated have their channel conversations (the name before March 2013 "One channel interface" redesign finalization: "channel comments") permanently deleted. [163]

User comments

Users will leave notes on most videos, and these have drawn scrutiny due to the negative aspects of both their type and content. Time magazine lauded Web 2.0 in 2006 for allowing "YouTube "harnesses the folly of crowds as well as its intelligence," he said, adding that "culture and teamwork on a scale never seen before." Some of the YouTube comments make you cry for humanity's survival only because of the pronunciation, let alone the obscenity and outright hate ".. [164]

 Users' comments on YouTube were listed as follows by The Guardian in 2009:[165]

YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile discourse and unashamed ignorance—with the occasional burst of wit shining through. Juvenile, violent, misspelled, racist, homophobic, swinging from screaming at the contents of a video to giving a pointlessly informative explanation accompanied by a LOL, YouTube comments are a hotbed of infantile debate and unashamed ignorance.

The Daily Telegraph announced in September 2008 that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed message exchanges on the internet," and that YouTube Comment Snob, "a revolutionary piece of software that hides rude and illiterate posts," had been published. [166] Finding remarks on YouTube that are "offensive, dumb, and crass" to the "vast majority" of people is hardly complicated, according to the Huffington Post in April 2012. [167]

Google launched a comment mechanism based on Google+ on November 6, 2013, requiring all YouTube users to have a Google+ account in order to comment on posts. The reported reason for the move was to give developers greater control over comment moderation and blocking, addressing repeated critiques of their content and sound. [168] The new framework reinstated the right to use URLs in comments, which had been disabled due to spam issues. [169] [170] 

In answer, YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim asked on his YouTube page, "Why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" to express his displeasure with the move. [171] In only two days, the official YouTube announcement[172] got 20,097 "thumbs down" votes and over 32,000 comments. [173]

"Google+ is nowhere near as popular a social networking network like Facebook, but it's basically being thrust upon millions of YouTube users who don't want to sacrifice their right to comment on content," Chase Melvin wrote in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, and "Discussion boards around the Internet are now overflowing with outrage against the new comment structure." Melvin goes on to say in the same [174]

Although consumer concerns are understandable, the thought of overhauling the old system isn't so terrible. Consider the crude, misogynistic, and racially charged mudslinging that has occurred on YouTube without some discernible moderation throughout the last eight years. Isn't it worth a chance to stop anonymous libelers? While the framework is far from ideal, Google should be commended for attempting to mitigate some of the harm caused by enraged YouTubers who hide behind anonymity and hatred.

Google revealed in a blog post on July 27, 2015, that it would no longer ask users to sign up for a Google+ account in order to leave comments on YouTube. [175]

YouTube unveiled a trial scheme on November 3, 2016, that allows video creators to choose whether to accept, cover, or report comments posted on their videos based on an algorithm that recognizes potentially offensive comments.

[176] In order to counteract spam, creators can opt to retain or erase comments with links or hashtags. They will also offer other users the authority to moderate their remarks. [177] 

Comments in videos and live streams that included the mandarin phrases "共匪" ("communist bandit") or "五毛" ("50-cent party") were automatically erased within 15 seconds in May 2020.[178][179][180][181]  Since YouTube is banned in China, censorship was seen as strange.

YouTube is reportedly releasing a new update in December 2020 that will alert users who make comments that "could be disrespectful to others."[182] [183] 

Content accessibility

YouTube allows people to share their content on websites other than their own. Each YouTube video comes with a piece of HTML that can be used to insert it on any webpage. [184] YouTube videos are often embedded in social networking sites and blogs using this feature. A "video response" is a video that is posted in response to, prompted by, or similar to another user's video.

YouTube revealed on August 27, 2013, that video response would be removed due to low use. [185] The video owner can disable embedding, scoring, commenting, and response uploading. (186) YouTube usually does not have a download connection for its content, preferring instead to have them accessed via its website interface. [187] A limited range of videos is available for download as MP4 files. [Page 188] Users can stream YouTube videos using a variety of third-party websites, apps, and browser plug-ins. [189]

YouTube launched a test program in February 2009, enabling certain collaborators to deliver video downloads for free or for a charge through Google Checkout. [190] Google sent cease and desist letters in June 2012, threatening legal action against many websites that offered online YouTube video download and conversion. [191] Zamzar responded by removing the option to import YouTube videos from its website. [192] Under the default Standard YouTube License,[193] users maintain copyright to their own work, although they can offer such distribution privileges under any public copyright license they choose.

Since July 2012, users have had the option of setting the default license to a Creative Commons Attribution license, which allows anyone to reuse and remix the content. [194]


Most new smartphones have the ability to view YouTube videos with an interface or a specially designed website. YouTube Mobile was released in June 2007, and the video was streamed via RTSP. [195]  On the mobile edition of YouTube, not all of the videos are available. [196]

YouTube videos have been available on a variety of Apple products since June 2007. This necessitated the transcoding of YouTube's content into Apple's default video format, H.264, which took several months. YouTube videos can be watched on Apple TV, iPod Touch, and iPhone, among other smartphones.  [197]

The site's web app was relaunched in July 2010 using HTML5, which eliminated the need for Adobe Flash Player and was designed for use with touch screen controls.[198] The Android edition of the smartphone version is now available as an app. [199] [200]

Following Apple's decision to exclude YouTube as one of the preloaded applications in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating systems, YouTube released its first iPhone version in September 2012. [201] YouTube was used by 35% of mobile users between April and June 2013, according to GlobalWebIndex, making it the third most popular app. [202] 

In July 2008, a TiVo service upgrade allowed the device to scan for and play YouTube videos.[203]

YouTube launched "YouTube for TV" in January 2009, a version of the website designed for set-top boxes and other TV-based media systems with web browsers, enabling users to watch content on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles for the first time. [204][205]

YouTube XL, which has a streamlined GUI optimized for playback on a traditional television device, was released in June 2009.[206] YouTube is also used as an Xbox Live application. [207] 

Google released an official Wii app on November 15, 2012, allowing users to stream YouTube videos from the Wii channel. [208] An app for the Wii U and Nintendo 3DS was available, but it was removed in August 2019. [209] HTML5-enabled videos can also be watched on the Wii U Internet Browser. [210] On December 17, 2013,[211], Google made YouTube available on the Roku player, and in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4. [212]

YouTube became a free app for the Nintendo Switch in November 2018.[213]


Google CEO Eric Schmidt made an appearance in Paris on June 19, 2007, to announce the latest localization scheme. [214]  The website's user interface is available in 104 different languages, one jurisdiction (Hong Kong), and a global edition. [215] 

Countries with YouTube localization 

Based on the user's IP address, the YouTube app indicates which local version should be selected. Because of copyright limitations or inappropriate content, the message "This video is not available in your region" may appear in certain cases. [262] Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian, and Uzbek are among the 76 language variants of the YouTube website interface that do not have local channel versions. Between 2008 and 2010, Turkey blocked access to YouTube due to a dispute over the uploading of videos considered disrespectful to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and other content derogatory to Muslims. [263] [264] In October 2012, a Turkish version of YouTube with the domain was released. The material restrictions imposed by Turkish legislation apply to the local edition. [265] Premium music videos were banned for YouTube users in the United Kingdom in March 2009 due to a disagreement between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music. The big record labels took down videos they had released despite failing to find an agreement on a licensing contract. In September 2009, the case was settled. [266] A related disagreement in April 2009 resulted in the banning of premium music videos for users in Germany. [267] 


In January 2012, it was reported that YouTube users spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, compared to the four or five hours a day spent watching television by a normal US resident. [268] In 2017, YouTube users spent more than an hour a day on their mobile devices on average. [269] 

Two billion views were excluded from the views of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube in December 2012, leading The Daily Dot to say that the views were removed due to a breach of the site's terms of use, which prohibit the use of automated systems to inflate view counts. Billboard denied this, claiming that the two billion views were transferred to Vevo when the videos were no longer available on YouTube. [271][270] To discourage view count theft, YouTube fixed the previously infamous behavior on August 5, 2015, which caused a video's view count to pause at "301" (later "301+") before the real count was checked. [272] The number of views on YouTube has been updated in real-time once again. [273]


In its efforts to comply with copyright, YouTube has faced many obstacles and critiques, including the removal of the site's first viral video, Lazy Sunday, due to copyright issues. [27] When posting a video to YouTube, users are prompted to refrain from violating copyright laws. [274] Despite this guidance, there are still a lot of illegal copies of copyrighted content on YouTube. Copyright holders must submit a DMCA removal notice under the provisions of the Internet Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act since YouTube does not view videos until they are uploaded online. Any successful copyright violation complaint leads to a YouTube copyright strike. After three successful copyright violation charges against a user account, the account and all of the user's submitted videos will be removed. [275][276]

Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League all filed complaints against YouTube between 2007 and 2009, alleging that it did not do anything to discourage the downloading of copyrighted content. [277][278][279] 

In the case of Lenz v. Universal Music Corp., a US court ruled in August 2008 that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first deciding if the publication was fair use of the content. [280]

In November 2015, Google, the owner of YouTube, revealed that they will help pay litigation costs in some cases where they think fair use defenses occur.[281]

Professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment LLC in 2011 for unfair use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube in Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC. [282] He claimed seven causes of action, four of which were found to be valid in Smith's favor. [283] A Hamburg court ruled in April 2012 that YouTube could be made liable for copyrighted content uploaded by its users. [284] The dispute with GEMA was settled on November 1, 2016, with Google content ID being used to allow ads to be added to videos with GEMA-protected content. [285]

Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual obligation that forbids videos blocked on YouTube by an appeal from UMG from being restored, even though the video's uploader files a DMCA counter-notice, according to a study from April 2013. [286][287] Universal and YouTube reached a deal in 2017 as part of YouTube Music, which was followed by separate deals with other record labels, giving the group the ability to ad sales while its music was playing on YouTube. [288] By 2019, after Content ID found even small segments of copyrighted music within a much longer song, producers were getting their videos pulled down or demonetized, with varying degrees of compliance depending on the record company. [289] Any of these clips, according to experts, qualify for fair use. [289]

Content ID

YouTube began testing a method for automatically detecting posted videos that infringe on copyright in June 2007. This scheme, according to Google CEO Eric Schmidt, is essential for settling litigation like the one filed by Viacom, alleging that YouTube profited from the content it did not have the right to distribute. [290] The device was originally identified as "Video Identification"[291][292] before being renamed Content ID[293] For proprietary audio and video content, it generates an ID File and stores it in a folder. When a video is submitted, it is reviewed against the archive, and if a match is made, the video is flagged as a copyright violation. [294] When this happens, the copyright owner has the option of blocking the video, monitoring the video's viewing figures, or inserting ads into the video.

YouTube had "already spent tens of millions of dollars in this technology" by 2010, according to the study. [292]

"Very reliable in detecting uploads that look close to reference files that are of adequate duration and consistency to create an appropriate ID File," YouTube said in 2011. [294]

By 2012, Content ID had accounted for more than a third of YouTube's monetized views. [295]

In a 2009 independent test, several copies of the same song were posted to YouTube, and the machine was found to be "extremely resilient" in detecting copyright infringement in video audio tracks, although it was not infallible.[296] The use of Content ID to automatically delete material has sparked debate in some circumstances, as the videos were not reviewed for equal use by a person. [297] If a YouTube user disagrees with a Content ID ruling, he or she will fill out a form to contest the decision. [298]

Before the conflict was settled in 2016, recordings could not be monetized. Since April 2016, videos have been monetized as the conflict is ongoing, with the proceeds going to the winner. [299] If the uploader wants to monetize the video again, the contested audio can be removed in the "Video Manager." [300] One of the reasons why YouTube's guidelines were changed in December 2010 to encourage certain users to post videos of any length was due to the usefulness of Content ID. [301] 

Moderation and offensive content

YouTube maintains a series of user rules in place to prevent the site's features from being abused. YouTube's "Community Guidelines" prohibit the posting of videos that include slander, pornography, or content that encourages illegal behavior. [302] 

Sexually graphic content, animal cruelty videos, shock videos, content posted without the copyright holder's permission, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior are all examples of generally banned material. [302] 

YouTube depends on its viewers to report objectionable video posts, and a YouTube employee can review a flagged video to see if it violates the site's rules. [302] Beyond the guidelines, YouTube has been chastised for some aspects of its operations, including[303] 

its recommendation algorithms perpetuating conspiracy theories and falsehoods,[304] hosting videos ostensibly aimed at children but containing violent or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters,[305] videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, and[305] videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections. and shifting policies on the categories of content that can be monetized by ads. [303]

YouTube hires businesses to recruit content administrators, who look for content that has been flagged as possibly breaching YouTube's content policy to decide whether or not it should be deleted. A former content moderator who developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 18 months on the job filed a class-action lawsuit in September 2020. According to the former content moderator, she was routinely forced to go over YouTube's specified daily limit of four hours of graphic content exposure. According to the complaint, YouTube's contractors included little to no mental wellbeing training or assistance to its moderators, required prospective workers to sign NDAs until giving them some samples of material they might see when updating, and censored any talk of trauma from internal forums. According to the study, demands for excessively graphic imagery to be blurred, decreased in scale, or converted to monochrome, as recommended by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, were turned down by YouTube because they were not a high priority for the organization. [307] [308][309]

To combat the dissemination of disinformation and false news on YouTube, the company has released a detailed policy on how to deal with technically distorted images. [310]

YouTube has also been chastised for stifling opposing views from government positions, especially in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic.[311][312]


Controversial material has included Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough crash, in which 96 Liverpool football fans were crushed to death in 1989. [314][315]  In July 2008, the House of Commons' Culture and Media Committee expressed its dissatisfaction with YouTube's video policing scheme, arguing that "proactive review of content should be standard procedure for sites hosting user-generated content." YouTube replied with the following statement:

We have strict guidelines on what is permitted, as well as a mechanism that allows anybody who encounters objectionable material to report it to our 24-hour monitoring team and have it immediately addressed. To make this step as simple as possible for our users, we inform our audience of the rules and have a direct connection from every YouTube channel. Given the amount of material on our web, we believe this is by far the most efficient way to ensure that the small number of videos that violate the guidelines are easily removed. [316] (July 2008)

U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to erase videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki from its website in October 2010. [317]  Any of the videos were removed from YouTube in November 2010 after they were found to be in violation of the site's rules. [318] YouTube acquired the option to tag videos for terrorist material in December 2010. [319]

YouTube launched a scheme in 2018 that would automatically apply fact boxes to videos that its algorithms concluded could contain conspiracy theories or other fake news, filling the infobox with material from Encyclopedia Britannica and Wikipedia as a way to reassure viewers and eliminate false dissemination without compromising freedom of expression. [320] Following the fire at Notre-Dame de Paris on April 15, 2019, YouTube's device immediately flagged multiple user-uploaded images of the historic fire with an Encyclopedia Britannica post about fake 9/11 conspiracy theories. This improper link was brought to YouTube's attention by a number of people. Officials from YouTube apologized, saying that their algorithms had misidentified the fire videos and applied the information block automatically, and that they were working to correct the problem. [321]

In August 2019, five prominent content creators whose sites were focused on LGBTQ+ materials filed a federal lawsuit against YouTube, arguing that the company's algorithms divert discovery away from their channels, reducing sales. The plaintiffs argued that YouTube's algorithms discourage videos containing terms like "lesbian" or "gay," which would be prevalent in their channels' material, and that they are violating their near-monopolization of online video services. [322]

Conspiracy theories and fringe discourse

YouTube has been chastised for using an algorithm that favors videos promoting conspiracy theories, falsehoods, and inflammatory fringe rhetoric. [323][324][325] According to a Wall Street Journal investigation, "Even though consumers have shown little interest in conspiracy theories, political views, or false images, YouTube's suggestions often take them to platforms that feature them. YouTube normally recommends videos that echo users' political biases, often with more conservative perspectives, when they display a political bias in what they choose to watch." [323][326] When people look up political or science terminology on YouTube, the search algorithms frequently favor hoaxes and conspiracy theories. [325][327] When viewers searched for breaking news after the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, YouTube attracted criticism for providing top billing to videos spreading falsehoods and conspiracy theories. As a result, YouTube modified its algorithm to allow credible media outlets more attention. [323] [328] [329] [330] (330) In 2018, it was revealed that YouTube was once again spreading fringe stories about breaking news, with hoax videos about Anthony Bourdain's death receiving a lot of attention. [331]

It was announced in 2017 that ads were being put on racist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites, and hate preachers who were paid for their videos. [332] Following the publication of this article, businesses began to stop advertising on YouTube. YouTube apologised and stated that it would allow businesses some power over where their advertisements were shown. [332]

Alex Jones, a right-wing conspiracy theorist, has amassed a sizable following on YouTube. [333] In 2018, YouTube was chastised for removing a video from Media Matters that included derogatory comments made by Jones, claiming that it had broken the company's "harassment and intimidation" policy. [334] However, YouTube deleted Alex Jones' YouTube channel on August 6, 2018, due to a copyright breach. [335]

YouTube has been dubbed "The Great Radicalizer" by University of North Carolina professor Zeynep Tufekci, who claims that "YouTube may be one of the most effective radicalizing instruments of the twenty-first century." [336] YouTube, according to Jonathan Albright of Columbia University's Tow Center for Digital Journalism, is a "conspiracy ecosystem." [325][337]

YouTube announced in January 2019 that it has implemented a new strategy in the United States to avoid recommending videos that contain "content that could misinform viewers in dangerous ways." As examples, YouTube provided false earth myths, miraculous healing, and 9/11 trutherism. [338] Attempts inside YouTube engineering to avoid recommending borderline radical videos that fell only shy of banned hate speech, as well as monitor their success, were initially refused due to the risk of interfering with viewer interaction. [339] The platform started introducing policies aimed at "raising authoritative content while minimizing borderline content and misleading disinformation" in late 2019. [340]

The plurality of videos were videos that conveyed opinions opposed to the science consensus on climate change, according to a July 2019 report focused on ten YouTube searches using the Tor Browser relating to the climate and climate change. [341]

YouTube's algorithm spread wellness misinformation, including bogus cancer remedies, according to a 2019 BBC review into YouTube searches in ten separate languages. [342] YouTube has been accused in Brazil of spreading pseudoscientific health misinformation, as well as elevating far-right extremist discourse and conspiracy theories. [343]

Following the spread of false reports about the COVID-19 pandemic on YouTube, claiming that 5G networking infrastructure was to blame for the spread of coronavirus disease 2019, leading to the destruction of several 5G towers in the United Kingdom, YouTube has deleted all videos connecting 5G to the coronavirus. [344]

Hateful content

Prior to 2019, YouTube took measures to ban individual videos or platforms relating to supremacist content that had breached its acceptable usage rules, but it did not have site-wide hate speech policies. [345]

Following the March 2019 mosque attacks in Christchurch, New Zealand, YouTube and other platforms that allow user-submitted content, such as Facebook and Twitter, were chastised for doing nothing to moderate and regulate the dissemination of hate speech, which was thought to be a factor in the attacks' motivation. [346][347] These platforms were under pressure to remove such content, but in an interview with The New York Times, YouTube's chief product officer Neal Mohan said that, unlike ISIS videos, which follow a specific format and are therefore easy to detect using computer-aided algorithms, general hate speech is more difficult to recognize and handle, and therefore cannot be easily removed without causing harm. [348]

While the United States refused to participate, YouTube entered an effort led by France and New Zealand in May 2019 with other countries and tech companies to establish tools to block online hate speech and to introduce laws to be enforced against internet firms who neglected to take action to remove such speech. [349][350] Following that, YouTube announced a massive update to its terms of service on June 5, 2019, "specifically barring videos claiming that a category is superior in order to excuse bigotry, racism, or omission based on values like age, gender, ethnicity, caste, faith, sexual identity, or veteran status." Images that "promote or glorify Nazi philosophy, which is profoundly racist," according to YouTube, are examples of such posts. YouTube has claimed that it would "delete videos questioning the existence of well-documented violent incidents, such as the Holocaust or the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting." [345] [351]

YouTube blocked many white supremacist outlets, including those of Stefan Molyneux, David Duke, and Richard B. Spencer, in June 2020, claiming that they had violated their hate speech laws. The ban was revealed on the same day as Reddit banned many hate speech sub-forums, including r/The Donald. [352]

Child protection

Prior to 2017, there was a substantial rise in the number of videos about children, owing to the success of parents vlogging their family's activities and previous content creators shifting away from content that was often attacked or demonetized and toward family-friendly material. In 2017, YouTube announced a 90 percent rise in time spent viewing family vloggers. [353][354] However, as the number of videos showing children increased, the platform became embroiled in a number of child protection issues. During the second quarter of 2017, the owners of the famous YouTube channel FamilyOFive, which featured them performing "pranks" on their kids, were charged with child cruelty. Their videos were subsequently stripped from their possession, and two of their children were taken from them. [355][356][357][358] In 2019, the founders of the channel Fantastic Adventures are convicted of exploiting her foster children in a related situation. Her videos will be removed later. [359] 

Later that year, YouTube was chastised for displaying inappropriate videos aimed at teenagers, many of which posted on YouTube Kids and gained millions of viewers, and also featured common characters in aggressive, sexual, or otherwise upsetting circumstances. The word "Elsagate" was coined on the internet and has since been used by a number of news sources to refer to the scandal. [360][361][362][363] YouTube revealed on November 11, 2017, that it was beefing up web security to shield children from inappropriate content. Later that month, the firm began deleting videos and channels that used inappropriate family-friendly characters in large numbers. The wave of deletions attacked outlets that depicted children participating in unsafe or harmful behaviors under the supervision of adults, as part of a wider concern about child welfare on YouTube. Toy Freaks, a channel of over 8.5 million viewers that starred a father and his two daughters in strange and unsettling circumstances, was deleted. [364][365][366][367][368] Prior to its removal, it raised up to £8.7 million a year, according to data firm SocialBlade. [369] 

Even for content that appears to be aimed at children and appears to contain only child-friendly content, YouTube's system allows for the anonymity of who uploads these videos. These questions have been raised in the past, as YouTube has had to remove channels with children's content which, after becoming popular, then suddenly include inappropriate content masked as children's content.[370] Alternatively, some of YouTube's most popular children's content comes from channels with no recognizable operators, posing questions about motive and intention. "Cocomelon," a platform that offered various mass-produced animated videos targeted at children, had become a source of concern. Before 2020, it had ad sales of up to $10 million a month and was one of the most popular kid-friendly channels on YouTube. Outside of its links to "Treasure Studio," an undisclosed party, Cocomelon's ownership was uncertain, raising concerns about the channel's purpose[370][371][372]. However, in February 2020, Bloomberg News was able to confirm and interview the small team of American owners of "Cocomelon," who confirmed that their aim for the channel was to merely entertain children and that they wanted to keep the channel to themselves to prevent scrutiny from outside investors.[373] The lack of awareness about what function certain channels are attempting to fulfill raises questions about their anonymity. (374) According to Josh Golin of the Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood, the difficulty of determining who operates these channels "adds to the lack of accountability," and educational consultant Renée Chernow-O'Leary discovered the videos were designed to entertain rather than educate, all of which has raised concerns among critics and parents about their children being too enraptured by the content. [370] Content producers who genuinely want to make kid-friendly videos have struggled to compete with larger channels like ChuChu TV, as they are unable to generate content at the same pace as these larger channels and lack the same access to YouTube's recommendation algorithms as the larger animated channel networks. [374] 

YouTube formally blocked videos with "challenges that promote actions that have an intrinsic risk of serious physical damage" (such as the Tide Pod Challenge), as well as videos of pranks that "make victims think they're in physical danger" or induce emotional trauma in children, in January 2019. [375]

Sexualization of children

In November 2017, it was also announced in the media that several videos of youngsters—often posted by the minors themselves and revealing harmless material such as the children playing with toys or doing gymnastics—were drawing pedophiles' comments. [376][377], with predators discovering the videos from private YouTube playlists or by typing in specific Russian keywords. [377] Other child-centric videos that were first posted on YouTube started to circulate on the dark web, where they were leaked or inserted into pedophilia sites. [388] 

Several big marketers whose advertisements had been running against those videos froze spending on YouTube as a result of the uproar, which led to the concern over "Elsagate." [363][379] The New York Times reported in December 2018 that strangers had tricked more than 100 children into sexually implicit acts (such as stripping off their clothing, performing sexualized poses, and improperly touching other children). [379] Half of the videos were taken down after a reporter flagged them, and the others were taken down after The New York Times called YouTube's public relations department. [380]

In February 2019, YouTube vlogger Matt Watson discovered a "wormhole" that would allow the YouTube recommendation algorithm to pull viewers into this category of video material, limiting the user's suggested content to only certain types of videos. The majority of these videos contained adult abusers leaving messages with timestamps of when the children were seen in uncomfortable situations or made such indecent remarks. Other users re-uploaded the video in an unlisted format with incoming connections from other videos, then monetized the links, spreading the network.  [381] Following the backlash, the service said it had removed over 400 outlets and tens of millions of tweets, as well as reporting the offending users to law enforcement and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. According to a spokeswoman, "Any material that endangers minors, including tweets, is abhorrent, and we have strict rules barring it on YouTube. There's already more to be done, and we're working to strengthen and detect bullying sooner." [382] [383] Despite these precautions, AT&T, Disney, Dr. Oetker, Epic Games, and Nestlé have all removed their YouTube ads. [[381][384]

YouTube started demonetizing and blocking ads on the kinds of videos that drew these predatory remarks as a result. The service clarified that this was just a temporary solution as they looked at possible options for resolving the issue. [385] YouTube has since begun to tag channels that mostly highlight children and delete their comment sections ahead of time. Comments can be re-enabled at the behest of "trusted allies," but the channel would also be responsible for moderating them. These acts mostly target toddler videos, but older children and adolescents' videos can also be covered if they involve actions that may be viewed as pornographic, such as gymnastics. YouTube also confirmed that it was working on a better method to delete comments on other sites that resembled child predators' design. [386][387] 

An effort to algorithmically flag videos containing references to the string "CP" (an abbreviation for child pornography) resulted in a variety of notable false positives involving unrelated subjects using the same abbreviation, including videos relating to the smartphone video game Pokémon Go (which uses "CP" as an abbreviation for the statistic "Combat Power"), and Club Penguin. YouTube apologized for the mistakes and restored the videos that were affected. [388] Separately, internet bullies have tried to have videos taken down or removed by posting with comments comparable to those made by child predators; this practice became a problem during the PewDiePie vs T-Series competition in early 2019. YouTube confirmed that they do not take action on videos with these remarks until they have been flagged as being likely to attract child abuser behavior. [389]

The New York Times reported in June 2019 that researchers discovered that people who viewed erotic videos were often suggested apparently harmless children's videos. (390) As a result, Senator Josh Hawley announced plans to enact federal legislation prohibiting YouTube and other video sharing platforms from including "recommended" videos that mostly contain minors, except those that are "professionally made," such as videos from televised talent shows. [391] YouTube also hinted at proposals to switch all videos starring children from the main YouTube platform to the YouTube Kids site, where they will have more leverage of the suggestion system, as well as other big updates to the recommended functionality and autoplay function on the main YouTube site. [392]

April Fools

From 2008 to 2016, YouTube hosted an April Fools' joke on the web every year on April 1st. Rick Astley's music video "Never Gonna Give You Up" was forwarded to all access to videos on the main page in 2008, a hoax known as "rickrolling." [393] [394] When you clicked on a video on the web page the next year, the whole page flipped upside down, which YouTube said was due to a "different interface." [395] In 2010, YouTube introduced a "TEXTp" mode that converted video imagery into ASCII art letters "to save $1 per second on bandwidth costs." [396]

The site's "100th anniversary" was marked the following year with a series of sepia-toned silent early 1900s-style films, including a spoof of Keyboard Cat. [397] In 2012, a video about a purported option to order any YouTube video for home delivery on DVD was accessed by clicking on the icon of a DVD next to the site logo. [398]

In an uploaded video from 2013, YouTube partnered up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to say that the video-sharing website was launched as a contest that had eventually come to an end, and that it would shut down for ten years before being re-launched in 2023, featuring only the winning video. Antoine Dodson was one of the YouTube celebrities featured in the film. For 12 hours, a recording of two presenters revealing the nominated videos was streamed online. [399] [400]

YouTube confirmed in 2014 that it was responsible for the development of all viral video phenomena, including "Clocking," "Kissing Dad," and "Glub Glub Water Dance," as well as samples of future trends. (401) YouTube added a music button to the video bar the following year, which played clips from Darude's "Sandstorm." [402]  With the help of Snoop Dogg, YouTube added the ability to view any video on the website in a 360-degree mode in 2016.  [403]


YouTube Premium

YouTube Premium (formerly YouTube Red) is a paid streaming service on YouTube. It includes ad-free viewing, links to premium content, background and offline video replay on mobile devices, and Google Play Music "All Access" access. [404] is an error code. YouTube Premium was first revealed on November 12, 2014, as "Music Key," a paid music streaming service that was to replace and merge with Google Play Music's "All Access" service. [405][406][407]  The channel was relaunched as YouTube Red on October 28, 2015, with ad-free online streaming and links to the exclusive original material. (408) (409) (410) The service had 1.5 million users as of November 2016, with another million on a free trial basis. [411] The first season of YouTube Originals had received 250 million views as of June 2017. [412]

Before the Music Key service released in May 2014, the international music trade group Worldwide Independent Network said that YouTube was using non-negotiable terms for independent labels that were "undervalued" in contrast to other subscription platforms and that YouTube will ban any music material from labels that did not want to be featured on the paying service. Robert Kyncl announced in a statement to the Financial Times in June 2014 that YouTube would ban videos from brands that do not negotiate agreements to be used in the paying service "to ensure that all content on the site is controlled by its current contractual terms." He went on to state that "although we wish we had [a] 100 percent success rate, we recognize it is not certainly a realistic target and thus it is our duty to our users and the industry to deliver the enhanced music experience," adding that "while we wish we had [a] 100 percent success rate, we understand that is not likely an achievable goal and therefore it is our responsibility to our users and the industry to launch the enhanced music experience." [413] [414] [415][416] According to the Financial Times, YouTube had signed an agreement with Merlin Network, a trade association representing over 20,000 independent brands, to include them in the operation. YouTube, on the other hand, has not announced the contract. [407]

Lyor Cohen, the co-founder of 300 Entertainment and a former Warner Music Group executive, was appointed the Global Head of Music by YouTube on September 28, 2016. [417]

YouTube TV

YouTube TV, an over-the-top MVPD-style streaming package that will be available for US consumers at a price of US$35 per month, was revealed on February 28, 2017, at a press event held at YouTube Space Los Angeles. On April 5, 2017,[418] it debuted in five major markets (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, and San Francisco). [418] [419] The service includes live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox, and NBC), as well as about 40 cable channels owned by the networks' corporate parents, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, 21st Century Fox, NBCUniversal, and Turner Broadcasting System (including Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, CNN, and Cartoon Network). Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus are available as optional add-ons for a charge, and subscribers can watch YouTube Exclusive original content (YouTube TV does not include a YouTube Premium subscription). [420] [421]

The service includes live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox, and NBC), as well as about 40 cable channels owned by the networks' corporate parents, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, 21st Century Fox, NBCUniversal, and Turner Broadcasting System (including Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, CNN, and Cartoon Network). Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus are available as optional add-ons for a charge, and subscribers can watch YouTube Exclusive original content (YouTube TV does not include a YouTube Premium subscription). [420] [421]

YouTube TV commercials were put behind home plate during the 2017 World Series (in which it was the presenting sponsor). The trademarked red play button logo displayed in the middle of the screen, closely resembling YouTube's interface. [422]

YouTube Go

Youtube - Google utube

YouTube Go is an Android app designed to make YouTube more accessible on mobile devices in developing countries. It differs from the company's other Android app in that it helps users to stream and upload videos. It also allows users to display videos and upload downloaded videos using Bluetooth, as well as provide more mobile data control and video quality options. [423]

At an event in India in September 2016, YouTube revealed the idea. [424]  It began in India in February 2017 and was extended to 14 additional countries in November 2017, including Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Kenya, and South Africa. [425][426] On February 1, 2018, it was launched in 130 countries around the world, including Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, and Iraq. About 60% of the world's population has access to the app. [427][428]

YouTube Music

Cohen first hinted at a potential introduction of YouTube's own premium music streaming service in early 2018, a network that will clash with Spotify and Apple Music. [429]  YouTube Music, a music streaming website, was released on May 22, 2018. [430] [431]

YouTube Shorts

YouTube revealed in September 2020 that it will launch a beta edition of YouTube Shorts, a new 15–second video app close to TikTok. In India, the platform was first put to the test. [432] [433] The network is not a separate product; however, it is part of the existing YouTube program. It, like TikTok, provides users with built-in artistic resources, such as the ability to use licensed music in their videos. [434]

YouTube Stories

YouTube began exploring a new application called "YouTube Reels" in 2018. [435] Instagram Stories and Snapchat Stories are virtually similar to this feature. The feature was later dubbed "YouTube Stories" by YouTube. It's exclusively for makers of over 10,000 subscribers and can only be posted/viewed on the YouTube smartphone app. [436]

Experimental (TestTube)

YouTube's experimental functionality can be found in the TestTube section of the web. [437][438] 

As an example, in October 2009, this package had a comment search function accessible at /comment search. Later, the functionality was deactivated. [439]

YouTube Feather was launched later that year as a lightweight alternative platform for countries with slow internet speeds. [440]


Creators for Change program and content partnerships

YouTube launched a worldwide initiative in 2016 to support artists whose videos had a strong social impact. This Creators for Change initiative received a $1 million donation from Google. [441]  The program's first three videos debuted at the 2017 Tribeca TV Festival. [442]  In 2018, YouTube extended the program. [443] YouTube also opened YouTube Space in 2012, which has since grown to ten locations around the world. The Space provides a physical environment for content producers to learn about creating content and provides services for them to produce content for their YouTube channels. [444] 

Logan Paul corpse scandal

Logan Paul, a YouTube founder, received backlash in January 2018 for a video he posted from a trip to Japan, where he came across a body of a suicide victim in the Aokigahara forest. Although the face of the corpse was censored, it was clear in the film. The video sparked debate because of its content, with critics accusing it of being offensive in its treatment of the issue. YouTube revealed on January 10 that Paul would be removed from the Google Preferred ads list, eleven days after the video was released. Six days later, YouTube revealed new partner program eligibility requirements to "significantly boost our ability to recognize creators who contribute favorably to the culture," requiring channels to have at least 4,000 hours of watch time and 1,000 viewers in the previous 12 months. YouTube also revealed that videos accepted into the Google Preferred program would be subject to manual analysis and ratings dependent on suitability (with advertisers allowed to choose). [445][446][447] 

These changes sparked further criticism from independent channels, which claimed that YouTube was altering its algorithms to favor professionally produced content (such as celebrities, music videos, and clips from late-night talk shows) that attracts a large audience and has a lower risk of alienating mainstream advertisers, at the expense of the creators that harmed them. [448][449]

Social impact

Youtube - Google utube

YouTube has been used to expand audiences for both private individuals[450] and major production companies[451]. Independent content providers have amassed tens of thousands of fans at no expense or effort, while mass distribution and radio marketing have proven difficult.  [450]  Around the same time, old media personalities joined YouTube at the behest of the company's executives, who had seen early video producers amass wide followings and perceived viewing sizes potentially bigger than those available on tv. [451] Although YouTube's revenue-sharing "Partner Program" enabled video producers to make a living, with the top 500 earning more than $100,000 per year[452] and the top ten earning channels grossing $2.5 million to $12 million[453], a CMU business editor described YouTube in 2012 as "a free-to-use... promotional tool for the music labels." [454]  According to Katheryn Thayer of Forbes in 2013, digital-era artists' work must not only be of good quality but also evoke responses on YouTube and social media. [455] In that year, the videos of the 2.5 percent of artists classified as "mega," "mainstream," and "mid-sized" earned 90.3 percent of all related views on YouTube and Vevo. [456] Billboard revealed in early 2013 that YouTube streaming data would be factored into the Billboard Hot 100 and associated genre lists. [457] 

TED curator Chris Anderson pointed to many YouTube contributors and argued that "what Gutenberg did for literature, online video will now do for face-to-face conversation," observing that face-to-face communication of the kind that online videos express has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution." [458] Anderson believes it is not far-fetched to predict that online video will significantly speed science progress and that video contributors could be on the verge of launching "the greatest learning loop in human history." [458] In education, for example, the Khan Academy developed from founder Salman Khan's cousin's YouTube video tutoring sessions into "the world's largest campus," according to Forbes' Michael Noer, with technology primed to change how people learn. YouTube received a George Foster Peabody Award in 2008,[460] describing the platform as a "Speakers' Corner" that "both embodies and encourages democracy." [461] According to the Washington Post, blacks make up a disproportionate share of YouTube's most subscribed outlets, in comparison to conventional media, where the stars are often white. [462] The emergence of "visual journalism," in which citizen eyewitnesses and existing news media collaborate on content production, was documented in a Pew Research Center survey.[463] The analysis also found that YouTube was rapidly growing in importance as a source of news. [464]

The CNN/YouTube presidential debates (2007), in which everyday citizens sent questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube video, have allowed people to more actively communicate with the government, with a techPresident co-founder claiming that Internet video was transforming the political environment. [465] Sociologist Philip N. Howard described the Arab Spring (2010–2012) by quoting an activist who said that organizing the political unrest meant using "Facebook to schedule the demonstrations, Twitter to organize, and YouTube to inform the world." [466] In 2012, 16 days after the "Kony 2012" video was released on YouTube, more than a third of the US Senate proposed a resolution opposing Joseph Kony, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham claiming that the video "would do more to contribute to (Kony's) destruction than any other activity together." [467]

Conversely, YouTube has made it easier for government to communicate with people, with the White House's official YouTube channel ranking as the seventh most popular news agency on the platform in 2012[470]. In 2013, a healthcare exchange commissioned a YouTube music video parody by Obama impersonator Iman Crosson to inspire young Americans to participate in Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance. [471] President Barack Obama met with leading YouTube content producers at the White House in February 2014, not only to increase awareness of Obamacare[472] but also to develop ways for the government to better engage with the "YouTube Generation." [468] While it was noted that YouTube's intrinsic potential to enable presidents to engage directly with ordinary people was noted, YouTube content creators' digital media savvy was seen as important to help cope with the website's distracting content and fickle audience. [468]

Some YouTube videos have had a strong impact on global affairs, such as the Innocence of Muslims (2012), which sparked worldwide demonstrations and anti-American violence. [473] Chris Anderson, a TED curator, explained a practice in which geographically dispersed individuals in a profession share their individually acquired expertise in YouTube videos, challenging others to better their own skills and spurring innovation and evolution in the field.  [458] According to Virginia Heffernan of The New York Times, those videos have "surprising consequences" for cultural diffusion and even classical music's potential. [474]

According to a 2017 New York Times Magazine post, YouTube has become the far right's "new talk radio." [475] Almost a year before YouTube announced in January 2019 that it would initiate a "gradual reform" of "reducing borderline content and content that could misinform users in harmful ways,"[476] "(g)iven its billion or so subscribers," Zeynep Tufekci wrote in The New York Times, "YouTube may be one of the most effective radicalizing instruments of the twenty-first century." [477] The most recommended channel on YouTube has shifted from conspiracy theorist Alex Jones (2016) to Fox News as a result of YouTube's updates to its recommendation engine (2019). [478]

Specific video outputs were used to recruit members of the Legion of Extraordinary Dancers[479] and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra[480]. [458] Furthermore, the "We Are the World 25 for Haiti (YouTube Edition)" cybercollaboration charity video was created by combining the performances of 57 internationally scattered singers into a single musical piece, with The Tokyo Times citing the "We Pray for You" YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a movement to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes.  [482] The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project grew out of a single YouTube video aimed at depressed or suicidal LGBT youth, which drew hundreds of video comments in less than two months, including from US President Barack Obama, Vice President Joe Biden, White House employees, and several cabinet secretaries. [484] In reaction to Amanda Todd's video "My story: Struggling, abuse, suicide, self-harm," legislation was enacted almost immediately after her death to research the phenomenon of bullying and develop a nationwide anti-bullying policy. [485] YouTube removed 30 videos in May 2018 after the London Metropolitan Police alleged that drill music videos glamorizing violence contributed to gang violence. [486]


Prior to 2020, Google did not include precise estimates for YouTube's operating costs, and YouTube's sales in 2007 were described in a regulatory filing as "not material." [487] A Forbes magazine report from June 2008 estimated 2008 revenue at $200 million, citing progress in ad revenues. [488] YouTube's advertising income was projected to be $3.7 billion in 2012. [489] According to eMarketer,[489] it nearly doubled in 2013, reaching $5.6 billion. [490] Others put the figure at $4.7 billion. [489] The vast majority of YouTube videos are free to watch and funded by advertisements. [52] YouTube launched a 53-subscription-channel trial scheme in May 2013, with premiums ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 per month. [491] The switch was seen as a bid to deal with other streaming video service providers such as Netflix and Hulu. [52]

In February 2020, as part of Alphabet's 2019 financial report, Google released exact sales figures for YouTube for the first time. According to Google, In 2020, YouTube's global advertising revenues amounted to almost 19.77 billion U.S. dollars, up from 15.15 billion U.S. dollars in the preceding fiscal period YouTube's ad sales in 2019 were $15.1 billion, up from $8.1 billion in 2017 and $11.1 billion in 2018. In 2019, YouTube's sales accounted for almost 10% of Alphabet's overall revenue. [492] [493] These subscriptions accounted for nearly 20 million YouTube Premium and YouTube Music users, as well as 2 million YouTube TV subscribers. [494] In 2020, YouTube's sales  rose to $19.8 billion. [1]

Advertisement partnerships

In June 2006, YouTube and NBC announced a content and advertisement alliance. [495] It signed a contract with the BBC in March 2007 for three channels with BBC content, one for news and the other two for entertainment. [496] MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS signed an agreement with YouTube in November 2008, enabling the companies to upload full-length films and television episodes on the web, along with commercials, in a segment called "Shows" for US audiences. The switch was made to compete with websites like Hulu, which broadcasts content from NBC, Fox, and Disney. [497] [498] YouTube released a version of "Plays" for UK audiences in November 2009, with about 4,000 full-length shows from over 60 partners. [499] YouTube launched an online video renting program in January 2010[500], which is now only open to consumers in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. [501] [502] About 6,000 films are available via the service. [503] 

Advertiser mass boycott

After allegations that its advertisements had featured videos of extremist material, the UK government removed its promotional promotions from YouTube in March 2017. The government requested guarantees that its advertisements would be "safely and properly distributed." In addition to their advertisements being near objectionable content, the Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and American brands, suspended their ads on YouTube. "We've started an exhaustive analysis of our advertisement policy and made a public pledge to bring in motion reforms that allow brands greater leverage about where their advertisements appear," Google said. [504][505] The YouTube channel h3h3Productions provided facts in early April 2017 alleging that a Wall Street Journal report had manipulated screenshots showing big brand ads on an inflammatory video featuring Johnny Rebel music overlaid on a Chief Keef music video, despite the fact that the video had not received any ad revenue for the uploader. Since it was discovered that the commercials were caused by the use of proprietary material in the film, the video was retracted. [506][507]

On April 6, 2017, YouTube announced that it would amend its practices to mandate that a channel undergo a regulation enforcement check and have at least 10,000-lifetime views before joining the Partner Program in order to "ensure money only flows to producers who are playing by the guidelines." [508]

Video creators earnings

In May 2007, YouTube launched the YouTube Partner Program (YPP), an AdSense-based scheme that allows video uploaders to share the revenue generated by advertisements on the web. [509] YouTube normally keeps 45 percent of the commercial sales from Partner Program posts, with the uploader getting the other 55 percent. [510] [511]

The YouTube Partner Program has over a million participants. [512] According to TubeMogul, a pre-roll commercial on YouTube (one that appears before the video begins) cost advertisers $7.60 per 1000 views on average in 2013. Owing to a shortage of interested sponsors, just about half of the qualifying videos have pre-roll advertising. [513]

Videos containing violence, strong language, sexual content, "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters, and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not seen" (unless the content is "usually newswound"), and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters, and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not seen" (unless the content is "usually newswound") are both [515]

In 2013, YouTube launched a feature that allows channels of at least a thousand subscribers to charge subscribers to watch content. [516][517] For a paying subscription, YouTube established a 10,000-lifetime view prerequisite in April 2017. [518] The monetization eligibility requirement was modified on January 16, 2018, to 4,000 hours of watch time in the previous 12 months and 1,000 subscribers. [518] The decision was seen as an effort to avoid controversies around monetized content, but it was criticized for penalizing smaller YouTube channels. [519]

YouTube Play Buttons, which are part of the YouTube Creator Rewards program, are a way for YouTube to recognize and reward its most successful platforms. [520] Channels of at least one hundred thousand, a million, ten million, fifty million, and one hundred million subscribers receive trophies made of nickel-plated copper-nickel alloy, golden-plated bronze, silver-plated metal, ruby, and red-tinted crystal glass, respectively. [521] [522] 

Strong violence, language,[523] sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters, and tragedies, even though graphic imagery is not shown" are all prohibited in YouTube's "advertiser-friendly content" policies unless the content is "usually newsworthy." [524] 

YouTube's rules were criticized by influential users, including Phillip DeFranco and Vlogbrothers, in September 2016, after the company introduced an improved warning mechanism to notify users about these breaches. DeFranco concluded that not being able to monetize those videos by ads was "censorship by another name." Although the proposal itself was not new, a YouTube spokeswoman clarified that the service had "improved the notification and appeal mechanism to ensure closer access to our developers." [525] [526] [527] LGBT keywords were demonetized in 2019, according to Boing Boing. [528]

Revenue to copyright holders

The bulk of YouTube's ad revenue goes to the advertisers and content makers who own the copyright to their films, with the corporation keeping 45 percent. [529] It was recorded in 2010 that about a third of the videos with commercials were posted without the copyright holders' permission. Copyright holders can choose whether to find and delete their videos or keep them running for a fee on YouTube. [530] Nintendo began imposing its trademark ownership in May 2013, as well as demanding commercial revenue from content makers who shared screenshots of its games. [531] Nintendo decided to split the sales with the video makers in February 2015.[532][533][534]

Censorship and bans

Youtube - Google utube

For a number of purposes, YouTube has been encrypted, filtered, or blocked, including [535]

Limiting public access to and exposure to content that could cause social or political upheaval.

Preventing criticism of a monarch (e.g., in North Korea), government (e.g., in China), or its acts (e.g., in Morocco), government officials (e.g., in Turkey and Libya), or religion (e.g., in Turkey and Libya) (e.g. in Pakistan).

Morality-based legislation, such as in Iran.

Connection to individual content is often limited due to copyright and intellectual property rights rules (e.g. in Germany), violations of hate speech laws, and blocking access to videos deemed unacceptable for children, as YouTube does for the YouTube Kids app and "restricted mode," among other things. [537] Due to bandwidth limitations[538][539] and the site's propensity for distraction, businesses, colleges, government departments, and other private organizations often block social media pages, including YouTube. [535] [540]

Many countries, including China, North Korea, Iran, Syria, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Eritrea, Sudan, and South Sudan, have blocked public access to YouTube as of 2018. YouTube is banned in some countries for shorter periods of time, such as at times of unrest, during referendum campaigns, or in response to imminent political anniversaries. In order to restore functionality, YouTube will often agree to delete or restrict access to a single video that has caused the entire platform to be blocked. [535]

According to reports, tweets insulting the Communist Party of China (共匪 or "communist bandit") or (五毛 or "50 Cent Party," referring to state-sponsored commentators) have been automatically erased within 15 seconds since October 2019. [544]

Thailand banned access to YouTube in April 2007 over a video that was claimed to be offending the Thai monarch. [545]

In May 2007, Morocco blocked entry, likely in response to videos critical of Morocco's occupation of Western Sahara.

[546] On May 30, 2007, YouTube became available again after Maroc Telecom unofficially reported that the website's denial of access was due to a "technical bug." [547]

Between 2008 and 2010, Turkey blocked entry due to a dispute over videos that were considered disrespectful to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. [548][549][550] The web was briefly blocked again in November 2010 due to a video of Turkish politician Deniz Baykal, and the site was threatened with a new closure if the video was not removed. [551] During a two-and-a-half-year period, YouTube remained Turkey's eighth-most-visited website. [552][553] Since "a high-level information breach," Turkey blocked entry for the second time in 2014. [554] [555] [556]

On February 23, 2008, Pakistan blocked access due to "inflammatory content" directed at the Islamic faith, including the showing of Danish cartoons of Muhammad. [557]   The Pakistani block was mistakenly moved to other nations, resulting in a near-global outage of the YouTube platform for about two hours. The ban was lifted on February 26, 2008, after the website deleted the offensive material from its servers at the government's request. [558] [559]  Many Pakistanis used virtual private network tools to get through the three-day blockade.  [560] 

Following the Everyone Draw Mohammed Day in May 2010, Pakistan blocked access to YouTube once more, citing "growing sacrilegious content." [561] On May 27, 2010, the ban was lifted after the website deleted the offensive material from its servers at the government's request. Person videos on YouTube that are considered derogatory to Muslims will continue to be censored. [562] [563]  In September 2012, Pakistan imposed a new ban on YouTube after the site failed to delete the film Innocence of Muslims, and the ban is still in effect as of September 2013.  [564] After YouTube released a Pakistan-specific edition in January 2016, the ban was lifted. [565]

Libya blocked entry on January 24, 2010, in response to videos showing protests in Benghazi by relatives of prisoners killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, as well as videos of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi's family members at parties. Human Rights Watch condemned the blockade. [566] After the Libyan Civil War ended in November 2011, YouTube was once again permitted in Libya. [567]

Following an uproar over a 14-minute trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims that had been released on the web, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sudan blocked access in September 2012. [568][569][570][571][572] The innocence of Muslims should be forbidden, according to a court in the Russian republic of Chechnya in the south. [573] It was blamed[by whom?] for violent demonstrations in Libya and Egypt. According to YouTube, "This film, which is freely accessible on the Internet, explicitly adheres to our standards and will therefore remain on YouTube. However, due to the extremely difficult situation in Libya and Egypt, travel to both countries has been temporarily blocked." [574] [575]


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